Monday, April 16, 2018

Industry Archives

Textile glossary

Ian McNeil Glossary #2


Abutment a construction that takes the thrust of an arch or vault or supports the end
of a bridge

Arch a curved structure, usually in the vertical plane, that spans an opening or gap

Beam a long, straight piece of wood, metal or concrete used as a horizontal structural

Caisson a watertight compartment or chamber, open at the bottom and containing air
under pressure, used for carrying out work under water

Caisson disease Divers working at higher than normal atmospheric pressure breathe in
increased nitrogen, which is dissolved in the bloodstream. When they return to
normal pressure, the nitrogen forms bubbles which, if collected in the capillary
vessels, causes cramps (‘the bends’). If it collects in the joints, damage to nerve
endings can cause paralysis, temporary or permanent

Cantilever a beam or girder fixed at one end only; a part of a beam or structure which
projects beyond its support

Centring a temporary structure, usually of timber, which serves to support an arch
under construction

Coffer dam a watertight structure enclosing an area below water level, pumped dry so
that construction work can take place

Corbel a projection of timber or stone etc., jutting out from a wall to support a weight

Falsework a temporary framework used during building

Girder a substantial beam, usually made of iron or steel

Keystone the central stone forming the top of an arch or a dome or vault (also called a
quoin or headstone)

Lintel a horizontal beam as used over a door or a window

Pier a vertical member or pillar that bears a load

Pile a column of timber, iron, steel or concrete, driven into the ground or river-bed to
provide a foundation for a structure

Soffit the underside of a structure such as an arch, beam or stair

Spandrel the space between the shoulder of an arch and the surrounding rectangular
moulding or framework, or between the shoulders of adjoining arches and the
moulding above

Springer part of an arch where the curve begins; the lowest stone of this

Starling an arrangement, usually of piles, that surrounds a bridge pier to protect it
from erosion caused by scouring, debris etc.

Truss a structural framework of wood or metal, usually arranged in a formation of
triangles, forming a load-bearing structure

Voussoir a wedge-shaped stone or brick used in the construction of an arch or vault.

Ian McNeil Glossary #1


Bell crank a means of turning a pulling motion at right angles. Two arms at right
angles are mounted to pivot about a point between their tips.

Cog and rung gears a gear system in which plain, unshaped teeth engage with a set of
staves held between two flanged rings.

Cycloidal gears gears formed to a precise profile so that when they engage they roll
along the face of the teeth to give a smooth motion and not the striking effect of the
cog and rung gear.

Fantail a means of turning a windmill into the wind automatically. This consists of a
set of blades mounted at the back of the mill at right angles to the sails, which rotate
the cap by means of a gear train.

Grain elevator a series of small rectangular buckets mounted on a continuous belt
inside a double wooden shaft. Grain is poured in at the bottom of the rising shaft so
that it falls into the buckets which empty themselves into a hopper at the top when
the belt goes over the top pulley.

Great spur wheel mounted on the upright shaft in a mill, drives the millstones by
means of the stone nuts and stone spindles.

Greek mill a mill in which a horizontal waterwheel is mounted on the same shaft as
the runner millstone. As the horizontal waterwheel turns so the runner millstone is
turned at the same speed. This type of watermill is in common use from Portugal
across the Mediterranean area.

Hemlath the longitudinal member at the outer edge of a sail frame.

Horizontal feed screw a means of carrying meal horizontally in a watermill. A rotating
shaft in a long square box or sheet metal tube carries a continuous screw of sheet
metal or a series of small paddles set in a screw form. The meal is pushed along to
the appropriate opening by the motion of the screw.

Horizontal waterwheel a waterwheel mounted to rotate in a horizontal plane so that
its rotation is transmitted into the mill by means of a vertical shaft.

Hurst frame the frame of stout timbers which carry the millstones. Often this frame is
independent of the structural timbers of the mill.

Impulse wheel waterwheels, or more particularly turbines, which are driven by the
pressure of the water being forced on them through a nozzle, rather than by the
weight of water flowing on to them directly.

Lantern gears and pinions gears (resembling a lantern) having staves between two
flanges, turned by pegs on the rim of another wheel.

Mortice wheel a cast-iron wheel in which sockets in the rim are set to receive wooden
gear teeth.

Moulin pendant a form of watermill still to be found in France in which an undershot
waterwheel is suspended in a frame so that the whole can be raised or lowered to
meet variations in the water level caused by flood water.

Norse mill another name given to the drive system found in the Greek mill (q.v.). This
form of mill still exists in Scandinavia and was common in the north of Scotland
and the Faroes.

Overshot waterwheel a waterwheel in which the water is delivered to the top of the
wheel so that it turns in the direction of flow.

Panster Muhle the German equivalent of the French moulin pendant (q.v.) which can
still be found in the German Democratic Republic. In some instances the frame
carrying the waterwheel is hinged and raised by chains and large man-operated
lifting wheels.

Pit wheel name given to the first gear wheel in a watermill mounted on the waterwheel
shaft. Because of its large size it usually runs in a pit on the inside of the wall which
separates the waterwheel from the mill machinery.

Querns name given to primitive hand-operated millstones. These can be stones
between which the grain is ground by rubbing or in which an upper flat-faced
circular stone is rotated over a fixed flat-faced stone.

Stream waterwheel waterwheel in which there is no head of water but in which the
floats are driven round by the flow of water striking them.

Tail water the water emerging from the bottom of a waterwheel while it is turning.

Undershot waterwheel a waterwheel in which there is a small head of water driving
the wheel around. The water hits the wheel at about 60° below the horizontal line
through the centre of the wheel.

Vertical waterwheel waterwheel mounted on a horizontal axis and rotating in a
vertical plane.

Vitruvian mill the simplest form of watermill with a vertical waterwheel. The
waterwheel is coupled by a pit wheel to a single runner millstone by means of a gear
on the stone spindle. It is so called because it is described by Vitruvius in the tenth
book of De Architectura which was published in about 20 BC.

Wallower a gear wheel which transmits the drive from the pit wheel to the upright
shaft in a watermill or from the brake wheel on the windshaft to the upright shaft in
a windmill.

Technical literature in the Middle Age

Ismail al-Jazarī, The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices
(Islamic Automation)

Petrus PeregrinuaEpistula de Magnete

Villard de HonnecouryAlbum 

dedica dell'Album ai suoi framaçon:
"Villard de Honnecourt vi saluta e prega tutti coloro che lavoreranno sulle macchine di questo libro, di pregare per la sua anima e di ricordarsi di lui, poiché in questo libro si possono trovare buoni consigli sulla grande arte delle costruzioni e sulle macchine di carpenteria; e troverete in esso l'arte del disegnare, i fondamenti, cosi' come li richiede ed insegna la disciplina della geometria ."

Guido da VigevanoTexaurus Regis Francie

Konrad KyeserBellifortis 

Mariano di Jacopo (detto il Taccola)De Machinis

Francesco di GiorgioTrattati di architettura e macchine

Roberto Valturio, De Re Militari

Leonardo da Vinci

Technical literature in the Ancient World

Sextus Julius Frontinus, Stratagemata

Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, Digesta Artis Mulomedicinae

Hero of AlexandriaAutomata
Hero of Alexandria, Pneumatica

Pappus of AlexandriaSynagoge (Συναγωγή) or Collection

Sunday, April 15, 2018

Step #3

Step # 3: i contesti

Per il proprio brevetto individuare i contesti:

  • Storico (il periodo e i luoghi)
  • Tecnologico (i materiali e le macchine)
  • Sociale (le ricadute dell'invenzione)
  • Narrativo (le presenze dell'oggetto nella narrativa coeva)

L'argilla e il vasaio

POIEIN (in greco significa "fare" ma alle origini significava modellare l'argilla)

POIESIS (la creatività  dell'istinto di narrare)

La dea Heket era una tra le divinità che creavano la forma del bambino nel ventre materno. Secondo alcune fonti essa era da considerare la controparte femminile del dio Ariete Khnum, il quale plasmava i fanciulli non ancora nati sul suo tornio da vasaio.

Lezione del 13 aprile

Argilla (Clay)

Homo Sapiens sapiens
Storytelling animal
Symbolic animal
MODEL                 ---           METAPHOR

Denis Diderot e Jean-Baptiste d'Alembert

(Paris, 1751-1772)

dove sono le basi delle moderne scienze cognitive:


Friday, April 13, 2018

Technical Literature in the Renaissance

Technical Books in the Reinassance (around 16th century and over):

Georg Bauer (Georg Agricola), Bermannus, 1530
Georg Bauer (Georg Agricola), De Re Metallica, Basilea, 1556

I teatri di macchine

Con i Teatri di Macchine i tecnici e gli ingegneri promuovono le proprie innovazioni presso il grande pubblico, ma soprattutto cercano crediti presso i possibili committenti. La tecnica trova nuovi canali per diffondere la propria "cultura" al di fuori della ristretta cerchia degli specialisti.

Il primo a inaugurare questo "genere" è il Theatrum Instrumentorum et Machinarum di Jacques Besson (Lione, 1569); seguono quindi:

I teatri delle macchine, di Vittorio Marchis, in Contributo italiano alla storia del pensiero V - Tecnica, (Roma : Ist. della Enciclopedia Italiana, 2013).


Antonio Neri, L'arte vetraria, Firenze, 1612